Tuesday, September 16, 2008

White Rabbit Creamy Candy

White Rabbit Creamy Candies are perhaps the best known brand of Chinese-made candy in China, and the only one to be marketed significantly outside of that country. They are manufactured in Shanghai by Shanghai Guanshengyuan Food, Ltd .


The candy is white, with a soft, chewy texture, and is formed into cylinders approximately 3 cm long and 1 cm in diameter, each wrapped in a thin edible paper-like wrapping made from sticky rice. The candy is similar to contemporary western nougat.

Although this layer is meant to be eaten along with the rest of the candy, it does not figure in the list of ingredients, which is limited to corn starch syrup, cane sugar, butter, and milk. Each candy contains 20 calories .

White Rabbit Creamy Candies originate from Aipixi Candy Factory, Shanghai in 1943. A merchant from Aipixi tried a milk candy from England then, and thought that its taste was not bad. He then manufactured the factory's own brand of milk candies after half a year. These milk candies were packaged using a red Mickey Mouse drawing, and named ABC Mickey Mouse Sweets. As their prices were lower than , it became widely popular among the people.

In the 1950s, Aipixi became state-owned. Mickey Mouse was seen as a symbol for worshipping foreign countries, so the packaging bore a white rabbit instead of Mickey Mouse. In 1959, these candies were gifts for the tenth National Day of the People's Republic of China.

Initially, production of the candies was capped at 800 per day, and were manually produced. However, commodities were lacking at that time. White Rabbit sweets were advertised with the line, "Seven White Rabbit candies is equivalent to one cup of milk", and was seen as a nutritional product. The candies hence accompanied the growth of a generation. Former students of the early Deng era report taking this slogan literally and making 'hot milk' on their dormitory cooking rings by dissolving the candies in a pan of hot water.

Today, White Rabbit candies has become China's top brand of candies. In 1972, Premier Zhou Enlai even used White Rabbit candies as a gift to American president Richard Nixon when the latter visited China. Although the White Rabbit brand already has some history, it has grown with the economy of China. Cities and agricultural villages' demands are increasing, especially during the Chinese New Year period when many families provide White Rabbit sweets among other candies for visitors. In 2004, White Rabbit candies' sales hit 600 million , with sales increasing rapidly by a double-digit percentage yearly . The candies are now exported to more than forty countries and territories, including the United States, Europe and Singapore.

White Rabbit candies' flavour and packaging has changed over the years. When the candies were first marketed, the White Rabbit was lying down; however, this was changed to the rabbit jumping. Besides the original flavour, flavours such as chocolate, coffee, toffee, peanut, corn, coconut, lychee, strawberry, mango, red bean and fruit have been added. The butter-plum flavour, characteristic of China, was also among the new flavours added among the years. After many improvements made to the milk candy, today's main ingredients include sugar, gelatin, butter and powdered milk.

The White Rabbit brand was transferred to Guanshengyuan in November 1997 . The United States distributor of the candy is Queensway Foods, in San Francisco, California.

Philippine product recall

The Philippine food and drugs administration claimed that the candies contain . The manufacturer of the White Rabbit, Guan Sheng Yuan, cited an independent report by the Shanghai branch of SGS-CSTC, a joint-venture under the Swiss-based SGS Group, the world's largest inspection and testing company, as saying that samples of the White Rabbit ready to be exported overseas and tested contained no toxic substances. . Singapore's Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority stated after conducting tests, that the White Rabbit Creamy Candy from China was safe for consumption.

On July 24, 2007, the local distributor of White Rabbit bowed to a BFAD recall order from the Philippine market. BFAD met Tuesday with representatives of Cheng Ban Yek and Co. Inc. to discuss the firm's pull out strategy. BFAD officials gave Cheng Ban Yek 15 days to implement the recall, and to submit progress reports every three days, but the latter asked for more time because of the number of places where the products can be bought.

Tong sui

Tong sui, also known as tian tang, is a collective term for any sweet, warm soup or custard served as a dessert at the end of a meal in Cantonese cuisine. ''Tong sui'' are a Cantonese specialty and are rarely found in other . Outside of Cantonese-speaking communities, soupy desserts generally are not recognized as a distinct category, and the term ''tong sui'' is not used.

There is a wide variety of tong sui and in Hong Kong, there are often stalls which devote themselves just to selling different types of desserts. These dessert stalls have also gained prominence in overseas Chinese communities, and can be found in various parts of Canada and the United States.

In , a similar dessert soup is called ''chè''.

Common varieties


Tapioca pudding

Tapioca pudding is a sweet pudding made with tapioca and, usually, milk. It is made in many cultures, in many styles. Its consistency ranges from thin , to thick, to firm enough to eat with a fork. Like its close relation bubble tea, very thin tapioca pudding resembles an emulsion.

The pudding can be made from scratch using tapioca in a variety of forms: flakes, coarse meal, sticks, and . Many commercial packaged mixes are available also. Uncooked, tapioca pearls resemble pellets of styrofoam; cooked, they resemble .



A common variation involves placing sweetened adzuki bean paste at the bottom. Another is to layer cooked tapioca custard and pieces of fruit. In this case the custard is thick enough that the fruits do not sink or rise to the top.

Hong Kong

The pudding is called "Sai mai lo" in Hong Kong as a tongsui dessert. In addition to small pearl tapioca, it has coconut and evaporated milk. Some varieties include taro to make "taro sai mai lo" . Other varieties include fruits such as mango or honeydew. It is served usually cold, sometimes warm.


In Brazil, the dessert ''sagu'' is made from pearl tapioca cooked with cinnamon and cloves in red wine or grape juice.


Tāngyuán is a made from glutinous rice flour. Glutinous rice flour is mixed with a small amount of water to form balls and is then cooked and served in boiling water. ''Tangyuan'' can be either filled or unfilled. It is traditionally eaten during ''Yuanxiao'', or the Lantern Festival.


Historically, a number of different names were used to refer to the ''tangyuan''. During the of the Ming Dynasty, the name was officially settled as ''yuanxiao'', a name derived from the ''Yuanxiao festival'', also known as the Lantern Festival. This name literally means "first evening", being the first full moon after Chinese New Year, which is always a new moon. This name prevails in northern China.

In southern China, however, the prevailing names are ''tangyuan'' or ''tangtuan''. Legend has it that during Yuan Shikai's rule , Yuan disliked the name ''Yuanxiao'' because it sounded identical to "remove Yuan" , and so mandated that the name ''Tangyuan'' be used instead. This name literally means "round balls in soup". ''Tangtuan'' similarly means " in soup".


In both filled and unfilled ''tangyuan'', the main ingredient is glutinous rice flour. For filled ''tangyuan'', the filling can be either sweet or savoury.

Sweet fillings can be:
* Sesame paste - the most common filling;
* Red bean paste;
* Chopped peanuts and sugar. Celebrated on the longest night of the year, Dong Zhi is the day when sunshine is weakest and daylight shortest. The coming of winter is celebrated by families and is traditionally the time when farmers and fishermen gather food in preparation for the coming cold season. It is also a time for family reunions.
This celebration can be traced to the Chinese belief in yin and yang, which represent balance and harmony in life. It is believed that the yin qualities of darkness and cold are at their most powerful at this time, but it is also the turning point, giving way to the light and warmth of yang. For this reason, the Dong Zhi Festival is a time for optimism.
Dong Zhi is celebrated in style. The longest night of the year is a time to put on brand new clothes, visit family with gifts and to laugh and drink deep into the long nig

Savoury filling is usually a pork meat ball.


''Tangyuan'' is cooked in boiling water. Filled ''tangyuan'' is served along with the water in which it is boiled .

Unfilled ''tangyuan'' is served as part of a sweet dessert soup . Common types include:
* Red bean soup
* Black sesame soup
* Ginger and rock sugar;
* Fermented glutinous rice , Sweet Osmanthus and rock sugar.


The most famous varieties come from Ningbo and Wenzhou in Zhejiang Province. However, they are traditionally eaten throughout China.

Originally, ''tangyuan'' was associated with the Lantern Festival. However, it has also come to be associated with the and Chinese New Year in various regions. Today, the food is eaten all year round. Mass-produced ''tangyuan'' is commonly found in the frozen food section of Asian supermarkets in China and overseas.

Similar dishes

In southern Vietnam, a similar dish, called ''chè x?i n??c'', is served in a mild, sweet liquid flavored with grated ginger root. In northern Vietnam, ''bánh tr?i'' and ''bánh chay'' are also very similar, with the latter being served with coconut milk. ''Gulab jamun'' is an Indian dessert that is made of fried dairy dough balls served in a bowl of syrup.

Tang hu lu

Tanghulu , also called bīng tánghúlú , is a popular traditional winter snack in northern China, especially in Beijing, and particularly for children. It consists of candied fruits on bamboo skewers that are approximately 20cm long. This snack can be found widely along the snack street of Wangfujing but there are street vendors who travel from place to place selling it.

''Tanghulu'' typically has a hardened sugar coating that comes from dipping the skewer in sugar syrup, but versions can also be found with a second chocolate coating, or sprinkles. The fruits used are traditionally but in recent times vendors have also used , , , kiwifruit, or , resembling a fruit kebab.

Sweet potato soup

Sweet potato soup is a dessert found in Southern China and Hong Kong.

Cantonese cuisine

In Cantonese cuisine it is categorized as a tong sui or sweet soup, hence the Chinese name. The soup is usually thin, but potent in taste. The recipe is simple, consisting of boiling the sweet potato for a long time with rock candy. Sweet potato is one of the most commonly found and abundant vegetable grown in China. With its simple recipe and large crop supply, sweet potato soup is one of the most accessible and affordable tong sui in the region.


Suncake is a popular dessert originally from the city of Taichung in Taiwan. It is made of flaky pastry with sweet fillings. They are normally packaged elaborately and meant to be given as gifts.

Many different pastry stores claim to be the "original" store that first produced suncakes. The pastries have become popular souvenirs for people visiting Taichung. In addition to the many stores that sell them, suncakes may also be purchased aboard trains passing through the Taichung area.

Origin of the name

The creator of the suncake is Mr. Chin-Hai Wei. The suncake is a very common pastry that goes with Chinese tea, and its original name was "malt sugar cake". Later on the name was changed by an unknown seller who opened Sun Patisserie. Another possible version of the name comes from its shape since it resembles a Japanese sun flag.

Song gao

Sōng gāo is a composed of rice flour, sugar, and water, with azuki beans embedded throughout the cake. Giant pink-colored azuki beans with a diameter of a quarter are embedded on top of the cake; conventional sized azuki beans are embedded inside the cake. The cake also has a filling. This dessert is steamed as a large round cake and is then partitioned into sections for eating. Madame Chiang Kai-shek, who loved to eat sōng gāo, had the to include her version of the cake on the hotel’s menu, which the hotel continues to offer to this day.

Rice pudding

Rice pudding is a dessert enjoyed by people of different cultures all over the world, originating in Asia. It is made by combining rice with a sweetener and other ingredients.

Types of rice pudding

Rice puddings are found in nearly every area of the world. Recipes can greatly vary even within a single country. The dessert can be boiled or baked. Different types of pudding vary depending on preparation methods and the ingredients selected. The following ingredients are regularly found in rice puddings.
*rice; or white rice, brown rice, black rice, basmati, or jasmine rice
*spices; ,
*flavorings; ,

The following is a short list of various rice puddings from different regions.

East Asia

*Kao niow dahm Black Rice Pudding
*Banana rice pudding
* Babao fan Eight Treasure Rice Pudding
*Pulut hitam Black glutinous rice
*Champorado Chocolate Rice pudding
Despite Japan and Korea being large consumers of rice, they do not have any porridge-based rice puddings; Instead they typically pound the rice into rice powder and make it into sweet rice cakes.

South Asia

*Kheer with slow-boiled milk
*Payasam with slow-boiled milk, sugar/jaggery and lots of nuts
*Firni with broken rice, cardamom and pistachio served cold.

Middle East

*Moghlie with anise and ginger
*Riz bi haleeb or ruz bil-laban , with rosewater and occasionally mastic
*Shola-e-zard with saffron
*Shir-berinj and Rice pudding


*Arroz Doce or Arroz de Leite with milk, cinnamon and lemon
*Budino di Riso with raisins and orange peel
*Arroz con leche with cinnamon and lemon
*Сутли?аш - Лапа - typical rice pudding with black poppy seeds
*Grjónagrautur, hrísgrjónagrautur or mjólkurgrautur ; more porridge than pudding, and a common casual meal, not necessarily a dessert. After boiling the rice in water and milk, the meal is usually served with ''cinnamon sugar'' , milk, raisins, cream, or even cold ''slátur'' ) . At Christmas one almond is hidden in the ''grjónagrautur''. The one who gets the almond usually gets a prize or an early Christmas present.
*Milchreis with cinnamon or cherries
*Mle?ni ri?
*Mlie?na ry?a
*Mляко с ориз with milk and cinnamon
*Orez cu lapte with milk and cinnamon
*Riisipuuro usually with either cinnamon or berries and served at Christmas with one almond. The one who gets the almond is supposed to have good luck all year .
*Rijstebrij or Rijstpap
*Risengr?d warm dish with milk, sprinkled with cinnamon, sugar, and butter
*Risalamande Risengr?d with whipped cream, vanilla, and chopped almonds, often served with hot or chilled cherry or strawberry sauce. A particular tradition is often associated with eating Risalamande, where a whole almond is mixed into the pudding, and the person who finds it wins a prize. Usually served at Julefrokost or on Christmas eve and is very popular.
*Rizogalo or Ryzogalo with milk and cinnamon.
*Riskrem risgr?t mixed with whipped cream, and poured with strawberry jam.
*Risgr?t or Risengrynsgr?t warm dish often enjoyed with sugar, cinnamon, and butter
*Risgrynsgr?te warm dish often eaten on Christmas Day morning for breakfast, usually with cinnamon and sugar as topping.
*Ris à la Malta
*Ri?a na mlijeku
*Sultjash Dialect
*Sütla? , served either hot or cold; often browned in a salamander broiler and garnished with cinnamon. May be sweetened with sugar or pekmez or not. Said to have first been prepared in royal Ottoman kitchens.
*Oriz na vareniku
*Tejberizs with milk, cinnamon or cocoa powder
*Сутляш or Мляко с ориз
*'''Молочная рисовая каша
*'''Молочна рисова каша , also can appear as "кутя" for Christmas

Latin America

*Arroz con leche with cinnamon and condensed milk
*Arroz con dulce/Arroz con coco with coconut milk
*Arroz-doce with milk, sugar and cinnamon

North America

In Canada and the United States of America, most recipes have descended from European immigrants. In the latter half of the twentieth century, Asian and Middle Eastern recipes have become more common. In the United States' New England region, the most popular is made with long grain rice, eggs, milk, sugar, or in the U.S. state of Vermont, maple syrup. This is combined with nutmeg, cinnamon, and raisins. The pudding is usually partially cooked on top of the stove in a double boiler, and then "finished" in an oven.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, rice pudding is a traditional dessert, and is very popular. Rice pudding is traditionally made with pudding rice, milk, cream, sugar and is sometimes, but not always, flavoured with vanilla, nutmeg or cinnamon. It can be made in two ways, in a saucepan or by baking in the oven. In a saucepan, it is made by gently simmering the milk and rice until tender and then the sugar is carefully mixed in. Finally, the cream is mixed in and it can either be left to cool and be served at room temperature, or it can be heated and served hot, it should have a very creamy consistency. When made in the oven, the pudding rice is placed into a baking dish and the milk, cream and sugar are mixed in. The dish is then placed in the oven and baked at a low temperature for a few hours, until the rice is tender and the pudding has a creamy consistency. Whilst cooking, the pudding may have developed a thick crust which, when eaten, adds an interesting texture to the pudding. Ready-made rice pudding, which is pre-cooked and ready to eat, is sold in tin cans or pots and is very widely available and found in most supermarkets and shops. Because it is canned, it has a very long shelf life.


Rice was first cultivated in Asia. Over thousands of years, various pudding recipes have developed in the Eastern Asia. Some include fruit and honey, while others are far simpler consisting of only rice, water and sugar.

For the west, rice pudding originated in the Middle East or Persia. The dessert gained popularity during the Middle Ages. Firni, one of the oldest of these Middle Eastern puddings, is made with rice flour and was introduced to India by the Moghuls. Records of an Indian sweet milk pudding occur in the 14th century. Shola, flavored with rose water, was introduced to Persia by the 13th century Mongols and is now eaten in much of west Asia. However the Indian Kheer has an independent history, as it is older than 2000 years.

In Europe, rice pudding with goat's milk was first used by the for medicinal purposes. For this reason, the first written records of rice pudding occur in medical texts. Medieval European sweet boiled rice pudding often was made with almond or cow's milk. Rice pudding appears in 1542 in the then Danish town of . However, rice was an imported luxury item reserved for the rich. Baked rice puddings featuring elaborate spices and other ingredients appeared in the 17th century. In the 18th century, rice pudding began to replace rye porridge and barley porridge at festivities in Scandinavia. Over centuries, the European recipe has been simplified, resulting in the modern dish often criticized for its blandness.

Rice pudding in folklore

In Scandinavia, rice pudding is traditionally served at Christmas. It sometimes goes by the names ''julegr?t''/''julegr?d'' , or ''tomtegr?t''/''nissegr?d'' . The latter name is due to the old tradition of sharing the meal with the guardian of the homestead, called tomte or nisse .
The pudding is usually eaten with cinnamon and sugar, with an 'eye' of butter in the middle. Sometimes an almond is hidden in the pudding. In Sweden, popular belief has it that the one who eats the almond will be married the following year, whereas in Norway, Denmark and Iceland the one who finds it will get a prize, often a marzipan figure.
Often the leftovers or overproduction of the rice porridge is converted to ''risalamande'' by adding whipped cream and chopped almonds. In Denmark the game of hiding an almond is often done with ''risalamande'', making it harder to find the whole almond among all the chopped ones that ''risalamande'' contains.

In the region of is typical kind of rice pudding called ''Lapa''. In fact, it is salted rice pudding prepared with baked poppy grains.

Rice pudding in literature

A reference to rice pudding is found in the third verse of the seventeenth-century nursery rhyme, "Pop Goes the Weasel:"

    Half a pound of tuppenny rice,

      Half a pound of treacle.

    Mix it up and make it nice,

      Pop goes the weasel.

Rice pudding is mentioned frequently in literature of the Victorian and Edwardian eras, typically in the context of a cheap, plain, familiar food, often served to children or invalids, and often rendered boring by too-frequent inclusion in menus.

In Edward Bulwer-Lytton's ''Kenelm Chillingly'', a would-be host reassures a prospective guest: "Don't fear that you shall have only mutton-chops and a rice-pudding...". In Henry James' ''A Passionate Pilgrim'', the narrator laments: "having dreamed of lamb and spinach and a salade de saison, I sat down in penitence to a mutton-chop and a rice pudding."

Charles Dickens relates an incident of shabby treatment in ''A Schoolboy's Story:'' "it was imposing on Old Cheeseman to give him nothing but boiled mutton through a whole Vacation, but that was just like the system. When they didn't give him boiled mutton, they gave him rice pudding, pretending it was a treat. And saved the butcher."

In Ethel Turner's ''Seven Little Australians'', the children express dissatisfaction with their food. "My father and Esther... are having roast fowl, three vegetables, and four kinds of pudding", Pip says angrily. "It isn't fair!" His sister notes that "we had dinner at one o'clock." "Boiled mutton and carrots and rice pudding!" her brother replies, witheringly.

''Rice Pudding'' is the title and subject of a poem by A. A. Milne, in which the narrator professes puzzlement as to what is the matter with Mary Jane, who is "crying with all her might and main/And she won't eat her dinner—rice pudding again—/What is the matter with Mary Jane?" As the poem proceeds, the reader comes to suspect that Mary Jane's problem is connected with the word "again."

An 1884 ''New York Times'' article is entitled "Living on a Small Salary: Close Economy Practiced by a Clerk and his Wife. They Live Comfortably in a Brooklyn Flat and Save Nearly $300 Out of a Yearly Income of $1000." "You observe", says the husband, "that although we have but little beyond the bare necessities of life we manage to live comfortably and happily." "Yes, indeed, we are happy", interjects the wife. The reporter describes their evening meal as a plate containing "a nice cut of beef, a couple of boiled potatoes, and a liberal portion of green peas." For dessert, there is rice pudding, which the reporter describes as "truly a delicious compound of rice and egg and sugared frosting."

A 1917 report by the International Committee of the Red Cross, on treatment of Turkish prisoners of war in Egypt describes the food with approval. The "ordinary diet" is described as "Breakfast: Arab bread; sweetened fresh milk. Lunch: Arab bread; beef; rice, vegetables. Dinner: Arab bread; rice soup; rice pudding."

Rice pudding is mentioned with much more affection in an incident related by Walt Whitman in ''Specimen Days''. Whitman visited an invalid soldier who "was very sick, with no appetite... he confess'd that he had a hankering for a good home-made rice pudding—thought he could relish it better than anything... I soon procured B. his rice pudding. A Washington lady, , hearing his wish, made the pudding herself, and I took it up to him the next day. He subsequently told me he lived upon it for three or four days."

In the play '''' by Tom Stoppard, Thomasina Coverly uses the example of stirring jam into rice pudding as an illustration of chaos. She wonders why it isn't possible to separate the jam from the pudding by stirring backwards. Her tutor Septimus Hodge asserts that it is because our universe is deterministic, according to the theories of Isaac Newton.

In Douglas Adams' ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'' the supercomputer Deep Thought derives the existence of rice pudding from first principles. This is to counterpoint between the complexity of Deep Thought and its task of exploring the eternal verities, with simplicity of the pudding.

Red bean soup

Red bean soup refers to a number of traditional Asian soups, all made with azuki beans.


In China, red bean soup is a popular dish. The soup is commonly thinner than the Japanese oshiruko version. It is categorized as a ''tong sui'', , or sweet soup. It is often served cold during the summer, and hot in the winter. Leftover red bean soup can also be frozen to make ice pops.

It is one of the main desserts offered after Cantonese cuisine meals in restaurants at night. When served, it is plain most of the time. The fancier restaurants may offer red bean soup with sago . The two types of sugar used interchangeably are and sliced sugar .


, or with the "o" , is a traditional dessert. It is a sweet porridge of azuki beans boiled and crushed, served in a bowl with ''''. There are different styles of ''shiruko,'' such as ''shiruko'' with chestnuts, or with glutinous rice flour dumplings instead of ''mochi.''

There are two types of ''shiruko'' based on difference of cooking way of azuki beans. Azuki beans could be turned into paste, crushed without keeping its original shape, or paste and roughly crushed beans are mixed.. According to Korean traditional folk beliefs, the color “red” is a symbolic color of positive energy which can defeat negative energy. Cooking and eating ''patjuk'' is a ritual to prevent bad luck, epidemic disease, and comes from evil spirits. Before eating the dish, Korean people used to serve it their own house shrine, they scattered it all around the house like in the kitchen, storage house, gate, yard and so on. These customs have been handed down through Chinese mythological stories. According to Hyungchosesigi, there was a man named Gong Gong. He had a bad son, and after he died he became a god of epidemic disease. Because of his cruel temper, a lot of people were killed by epidemics. Trying to find a solution to prevent infectious diseases, they recalled the fact that the son of Gong Gong hated “red bean soup” when he was alive. Thus, people made red bean soup and scattered it all around the house. And then the epidemics disappeared.

Eating ''patjuk'' is a ritual to wish for abundant harvests. Ancient Korea was an agrarian society, and a rich harvest has always been a pivotal issue for them. Koreans eat Patjuk on Donggi, when the days start becoming longer than nights. When they make Patjuk they add small dumplings which were made of rice as the same number as their age. By fully relaxing and eating nourishing health food, they wanted to have a preparation period before starting farming in the spring.

''Patjuk'' embodies a custom of conserving food. Koreans usually eat rice and side dishes. However, in the wintertime when Korean families had shortage of grains, ''patjuk'' became a complete meal itself. It could be made of simple ingredients. For example, red beans, water, small grains of rice and also it requires no need extra side dishes. Thus, when people prepare some events in winter, Patjuk is an economical food for conserving grain.


Vietnamese cuisine also has a similar dish, called ''chè ??u ??''. Particularly in southern Vietnam, it contains added coconut milk.


In Sydney, Australia as well as many other major cities in Australia, it is served as complimentary dessert along with fruit, pudding and sometimes cake and biscuits for no extra charge at most Cantonese restaurants.

Red bean cake

Red bean cake is a type of Asian cake with a sweet red bean paste filling. It is made primarily with azuki beans.

Japanese cuisine

Mizuyokan is made without the outer shell of steamed dough, and instead of a paste, the mashed beans are mixed with gelatin, cooled for an extended period of time, and then cut into squares and served.

Cantonese cuisine

red bean cake is made with hardened red bean paste that has been frozen. The cake is sweetened and sprinkled with sesames. It is generally tough to bite, and is served as a square block. Depending on the particular , this may seen as a year-round snack, or as a seasonal consumed on certain Traditional Chinese holidays.

Put chai ko

Put chai ko is a Hong Kong snack. The pudding cake is size and is sweet in taste. It is soft, but can hold its molded shape outside of a bowl or small bowl. The cake is made from different forms of steamed sugar and select ingredients.


The snack is also known by a number of English names. Put chai pudding, Earthen bowl cake, Bootjaigo, Red bean pudding, Bood chai ko and the more direct but unofficial translation of Sticky rice pudding.


The pudding is made like other traditional steam cakes. It is said to have originated in Taishan, a county 140 km west of Hong Kong. The pudding reached its popularity peak in the early to mid- when sold it all over the streets in their push carts. At the time, there were only a small handful of flavors. One of the dish's cultural trademarks is that it is served in a porcelain bowl or an aluminum cup. The snack is still available today in select or snack shops, or from street hawkers. The pudding can also be served like an ice pop, held up by two bamboo sticks.


Classic Hong Kong flavors

* Plain white steamed sugar
* Brown sugar
* Plain white sugar with azuki beans
* Brown sugar with any one of the beans in the genus ''Vigna''

Orange jelly candy

Orange Jelly Candy are finger-sized sticks of soft jelly candy generally sold in food specialty stores in Hong Kong. A great deal of candy available in Hong Kong are imported from Europe, mainland China, United States and other regions around the world. Orange jelly candy is one of the few that has historically been manufactured locally in Hong Kong.


The 1980s version of the candy came with an ultra thin transparent layer that is basically an edible wrapper. The present day version are just packaged in typical candy wrappers. The candy are made at Smith's confectionery factory at Kwun Tong. The jelly sticks are very soft and sweet. It does not have much of an orange taste despite the name.

Related Products

In the early 1990s, the company produced a hard candy named Orange Arm-Cicle . The actual candy, like the jelly candy, does not taste like orange; it does, however, come in a variety of flavors, often changing color during certain Public holidays in Hong Kong.


Nuomici is a type of . It is one of the most standard pastries in Hong Kong. It can also be found in most Chinatown bakery shops overseas. It is also referred to as glutinous rice dumpling.

The glutinous rice ball is dusted with dried coconut on the outside. The outer layer is made of a rice flour dough and the inside is typically filled with a sweet filling. The most common fillings are: sugar with coconut and crumbled peanuts, red bean paste, and black sesame seed paste.

Nian gao

Nian gao, Rice cake, Year cake or Chinese new year's cake is a food prepared from glutinous rice and consumed in Chinese cuisine. It is available in Asian supermarkets and from health food stores. While it can be eaten all year round, traditionally it is most popular during Chinese New Year. It is considered good luck to eat nian gao during this time because "nian gao" is a homonym for "every year higher and higher." 年糕 - 年高


Despite numerous varieties, they all share the same glutinous rice ingredient that is pounded or ground into a paste and, depending on the variety, may simply be molded into shape or cooked again to settle the ingredient. Nian gao has many varieties including the types found in Shanghai cuisine, and Cantonese cuisine originating from Guangdong.


Shanghai cuisine

The Shanghai style is usually packaged in a thick soft rod to be sliced up or packaged pre-sliced and either stir-fried or added to soup. Depending on the cooking method this style is a soft to a chewy variant. The Shanghai style keeps the nian gao white. The color is its distinct feature.

When served as a dish, the most common is the method, hence the name . There are three general types. The first is a savory dish, common ingredients include scallions, beef, pork, cabbage etc. The second is a sweet version using standard white sugar. The last version is taste-less, and is often consumed for its chewy textures.

Cantonese cuisine

The Guangdong variety is also called nian gao. It is sweetened, usually with brown sugar. It is distinct with a dark yellow color. The paste is poured into a cake pan and steamed once more to settle mixture. The batter is steamed until it solidifies and served in thick slices. It may be eaten as is. The nian gao becomes stretchy and extremely sticky. It can also be served as a flavored with rosewater or red bean paste.

The next stage is optional as it can be afterwards,often with egg, to make . When fried it is slightly crispy on the outside, and remains pasty on the inside. During Chinese new year, it is cut into square pieces and served along with similar cake dim sum dishes like taro cake and water chestnut cake.

Other cultures

Japan and Korea both have similar pounded glutinous rice foods, known as '''' and ''tteok'', respectively. Nian gao is also widely consumed in the Philippines during the Chinese New Year due to the country's large population of overseas Chinese from the Guangdong region. Nian gao is known as ''tikoy'' in the Philippines.


Different parts of Asia have mixed the cake with different ingredients such as red bean paste or even lotus seed paste. There are not considered to be main branches or major cuisine variations. Instead they should be thought of as creative modern flavors offered by local shops.

As soup ingredient

When used in soups, it is dropped in and boiled. There are a wide variety of soups that use nian gao.

Nai lao

Beijing yogurt is a traditional dish of Beijing cuisine. The traditional culinary method of this dish begins with the preparation of the main ingredient by heating the milk first. Sugar is added to the boiling milk, which is then allowed to cool in shades.
Two types of nuts were needed with outer shell removed: walnuts are soaked in boiling water to remove the membrane, and then chopped into small pieces. Sunflower seeds, on the other hand, were stir-fried. After nuts have been prepared, they were mixed with raisins and placed in fifty small bowls.

After the milk has been cooled, rice wine made of glutinous rice is poured in and thoroughly stirred. A special device called a yogurt barrel is needed for further production processes and this is basically a barrel with heat chamber in the center, where fire continuously burns, providing the heat needed for baking. The milk mixed with rice wine and sugar is rapidly poured into the fifty small bowls filled with crushed nuts and raisins, and immediately covered with a flat wooden cap. The bowls are then stacked along the inner wall of the yogurt barrel and heated for twenty to thirty minutes, after which they are cooled in a chamber filled with ice for three to four hours. When the cooling is complete, Beijing yogurt is ready to be served.

Mi san dao

Mi san dao is a fried cake glazed in and is a traditional dish of Beijing cuisine.


The traditional culinary method of this dish begins with the preparation of the main ingredients: 2.5 of flour, baking soda 50 grams, malt sugar 750 grams, vegetable oil 1.5 kg. About 25% of the flour would be mixed with water, baking soda, and malt sugar for fermentation, and this is the outside skin. The remaining flour would be mixed evenly with water and this is the inner part. Both types of dough would be compressed into elongated rectangular shape and stacked in the following way: the inner part is sandwiched between the outer skins and the resulting three layers should be no more than 5 thick. The sandwiched dough would then be compressed thinner and cut into long strips, and then folded and cut three times into 4 equal parts. The resulting dough pieces would then be fried in vegetable oil until the color turns gold. Once the fried dough pieces are taken out, they are dipped in malt sugar and then served. For every gram of flour used to make this dish, an equal amount of malt sugar is used for the dipping.

Mango pudding

Mango pudding is a popular dessert in Hong Kong. The dessert is also popular in Singapore and Macau and is often found in dim sum restaurants worldwide.

There are two types of mango pudding, fresh and factory-made.

The fresh variant is prepared by the restaurant or eatery and consists of agar or gelatin, fresh mangoes, evaporated milk and sugar. In addition, some places add fresh fruit such as mango, , and kiwifruit as garnish. Served and eaten refrigerator cold. It has a rich and creamy texture.

Factory-made mango pudding does not contain fresh mangoes and instead, consists of mango essence and either gelatin or agar.



Kai kou xiao is a fried sesame egg cake traditional to Beijing cuisine.


The traditional culinary method of this dish begins with the preparation of the main ingredients: 500 grams of flour, 1 kg of peanut oil, 50 grams of egg, 50 grams of sugar, 150 grams of , 60 grams of sesame seeds and . With the exception of the sesame seeds, everything else is mixed together, and the resulting dough is cut into pieces each weighing around 40 grams. The sesame seeds are boiled in water for a while and then taken out and put into a container, and each small piece of dough is rolled in the sesame seeds to have the sesame seeds covered on themselves. The frying is the most difficult part because if the oil is too hot, there will not be any open cracks, but if the oil is not hot enough, the dough will fall apart. The chef must lift the frying pan off the stove and put it back on depending on the situation. The resulting opening crack is where the literal name in Chinese comes from, because the it resembles a happy smiling mouth.


Hasma is a dessert ingredient made from the dried fallopian tubes of the Asiatic Grass Frog . Hasma is often mistakenly described as toad or frog fat, since it is sometimes referred to as "toad oil" .


Hasma is produced primarily in the Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces in China. Previously available only to , soups made with hasma are available in North American cities with large Chinese populations and in China , Taiwan and Hong Kong.

Physical characteristics

Hasma is sold dried as irregular flat pieces and flakes ranging from 1-2 cm in length and 1-5 mm in thickness. Individual pieces are yellowish-white in colour with a matte lustre, whose surface may be covered with off-white pellicles. When rehydrated, dried hasma can expand up to 10-15 times in size.

The dried hasma is rehydrated and with to create a glutinous texture and opaque color. Dried or rehydrated hasma has a slight fishy smell. In its unflavoured form it is sweet and slightly savory in taste with a texture that is glutinous, chewy, and light, very similar to that of tapioca in a dessert.


Hasma serves the role of providing texture to tong sui, or sweet soups, as well as increasing the luxury quotient of the soup. These soups are usually flavoured with rock sugar. For the uninitiated, this relatively accessible eating experience belies the exotic sounding nature of the dessert. Hasma is widely featured in dessert dishes in high class restaurants in Hong Kong.

Hasma is most commonly paired in sweet soups with:
*Dried longan fruits
*Lotus seeds

It is also a key ingredient in making "Three snow soup" , which consists of:
*Snow fungus

Hasma can also be included in more exotic versions of shark fin soup.

Health benefits

Hasma is taken for medicinal purposes in Traditional Chinese medicine. Reported benefits of eating ''hasma'' include replenishing vital essence in the lungs, kidneys, and improving skin complexion. Hasma is also prescribed to treat respiratory symptoms such as coughing, hemoptysis and night sweats due to tuberculosis. Young children are however not recommended to take it, as the high contents of hormones might cause puberty to begin early.


Guīlínggāo is a Chinese medicine that is made with the powdered shell from the critically and China roots . It is also eaten as a dessert, made in the form of a jelly. Commercially available ''guīlínggāo'' are always sold as a dessert and do not contain turtle shell powder . They do, however, share the same herbal additives as the medicine and are similarly marketed as being good for skin complexion when ingested.


It was believed that Emperor Tongzhi nearly cured his smallpox by taking ''guilinggao''. However, Empress Cixi believed his disease could be cured by worshipping a smallpox idol. She succeeded in convincing Tongzhi to quit his ''guilinggao'' regimen. As a result, the emperor died.

''Guilinggao'' is thought to be good for the skin, allowing for a healthier complexion upon repeated consumption. However this effect, if any, is most likely attributed to the additional herbal additives within the jelly.


Regular ''guilinggao'' jelly is black in appearance; however, the actual color is more of a dark brown. Naturally, it is not sweet, but slightly bitter, although sweeteners such as honey can be added to make it palatable.

Relatively inexpensive canned ''guilinggao'' jelly with pop tops and little plastic spoons can be found in Chinatowns in the United States and Canada. Although sweet and sometimes eaten as a dessert, it is very much an acquired taste.


''Guilinggao'' jelly is prepared from the powder form, very similar to how Jello is made. When it is prepared, other herbal substances, such as ginseng, are added to the jelly to give it certain tastes and medicinal values. The main ingredients of a typical Guilinggao jelly dessert found in North America contains: Water, sucrose, ''guilinggao'' powder, and American Ginseng.

Grass jelly

Grass jelly, or Leaf jelly , is a jelly-like dessert found in China, Taiwan and Southeast Asia. It is sold in cans or packets in Asian supermarkets.


Grass jelly is made by boiling the aged and slightly fermented stalks and leaves of ''Mesona chinensis'' with potassium carbonate for several hours with a little starch and then cooling the liquid to a jelly-like consistency. This jelly can be cut into cubes or other forms, and then mixed with syrup to produce a drink or dessert thought to have cooling properties, which makes it typically consumed during hot weather. The jelly itself has a slight bitter taste, a light iodine lavender flavor, and is a translucent black. It can also be mixed with soy milk to produce a milky white liquid with black strands in it.



In China, grass jelly was traditionally served with sugar syrup. Now it is often served mixed with other ingredients, such as mango, sago, watermelon, cantaloupe, and other fresh or canned fruit, and evaporated milk.


In Indonesia, black jelly is manufactured as an instant powder, like other instant jellies or agar. This form is easier to use. It is made from the leaves of ''Mesona palustris''.

Two other plants used in Indonesia are ''Melastoma polyanthum'', known as ''Cincau perdu'',
and ''Cyclea barbata'', known as ''Cincau Hijau''.

Malaysia and Singapore

Plain grass jelly is mixed in various kinds of desserts, such as ice kacang and ''cendol''. It is also mixed with soy milk to produce a milky white liquid with black strands in it, a drink known as Michael Jackson in South-East Asia.


In , grass jelly is ''th?ch'' . Grass jelly is chopped in small cubes and served as a additional ingredient in sweet desserts made from various kinds of beans . There are two common kinds of grass jelly in Vietnam which are - called ''s??ng sáo'' in Vietnamese and Tiliacora triandra called ''s??ng s?m'' in Vietnamese . Grass jelly drinks are also very popular amongst Vietnamese women; they are believed to enhance fertility, this is caused by the high levels of estrogen contained in the grass's root.


In Thailand grass jelly is known as, ??????? or chau guay, and is commonly served relatively plain with the addition of ice and natural brown sugar, in addition to the other preparations that are listed above, with the inclusion of fruits such as Jackfruit, the fruit of the and other Thai desserts.

Got fan

Gotfan is a traditional pudding-like hot soup within Chinese cuisine. It is a considered a more traditional and home-style dish in Hong Kong and China, since it is never served at any restaurants.


The soup recipe is simple as it only requires the boiling of water and powder extracted from plant roots. Sugar is added for sweetness. The thickness varies depending on the ratio of water and powder. More powder and less water equals more thickness.


It is mostly considered a healthy snack. Sometimes it is used to cleanse digestive system due to its purity.


Different plants offer different powder. The soup ends up looking clear, white or even light green. In all cases, it is served hot.

Ginger milk curd

Ginger milk curd, also known as ginger-juice milk curd or simply ginger milk, is a hot dessert originated in Shawan town of Panyu District, Guangzhou in the Guangdong Province in China. The main ingredients are ginger, milk, and sugar. milk is used in the original recipe.

Method of preparation

First, squeeze the juice from a piece of ginger, then filter the juice finely and put into a bowl. Next, dissolve sugar in milk, then heat and stir. Finally, pour the mixture quickly into the bowl of ginger juice and wait for two to three minutes. The milk will then solidify, and may be eaten with a spoon.

Underlying chemical principle

Ginger contains protease. When milk is added to ginger juice, protease reacts chemically with the protein in milk which changes from a water-soluble form to a water-insoluble form, and leads to the formation of milk curd.

Fried ice cream

Fried ice cream is a dessert. There are Mexican-American and Asian variants.

The dessert is commonly made by taking a scoop of ice cream frozen well below the temperature at which ice cream is generally kept, possibly coating it in raw egg, rolling it in cornflakes or cookie crumbs, and briefly deep frying it. The extremely low temperature of the ice cream prevents it from melting while being fried. It may be sprinkled with cinnamon and sugar and a touch of peppermint, though whipped cream or honey may be used as well.

Even though fried ice cream is coated in raw egg prior to deep frying, the egg remains uncooked due to the low temperature of the ice cream. If the egg is not carefully prepared or stored beforehand, this dish can result in salmonella .

In and restaurants in the U.S., fried ice cream has also become a commonly served dessert. The recipe at such restaurants usually uses tempura batter instead of cornflakes or cookie crumbs. The most common flavors in Asian restaurants are green tea, vanilla, and red bean. Coconut may also be used.

Flame on the iceberg

Flame on the Iceberg is a dessert popular in Hong Kong, similar to Baked Alaska in Western cuisine. Decades ago, the delicacy was served only in high-end hotel restaurants, but today it can be tasted in many Western restaurants and even in some'' cha chaan teng''.

The dessert is an ball in the middle of a sponge cake, with on the top. Whisky and syrup are poured over the top and the ball set alight before serving.

Egg tong sui

Egg tong sui is a classic ''tong sui'' within Cantonese cuisine, essentially a sweet version of egg drop soup. It is considered a more traditional and home-style dish in Hong Kong and China, since it is rarely if ever served at any restaurants.


The soup recipe is simple as it only requires the boiling of water, chicken , and sugar. The eggs are usually cracked open with the yolk and egg whites poured right in without any pre-mixing. It is always served hot.

Dragon's beard candy

Dragon's beard candy is a form of spun sugar traditional in China. It is said to have been invented for the emperor about 2,000 years ago. It consists of many very fine strands of sugar, giving it the appearance and consistency of a fine beard – hence its name.


The candy is made by boiling partially or a plain sucrose and maltose solution until it just reaches the stage and then leaving it to cool. The resulting solid, which is pliable, is formed into a torus and then repeatedly stretched and folded over, doubling the number of strands on each repetition. While the candy is being folded it is kept covered in toasted glutinous rice flour, in order to keep the strands from sticking together.

The finished beard is cut up into small pieces and usually then wrapped around crushed peanuts and sesame seeds . The candy is supposed to be eaten immediately after manufacture, although it will keep for up to six months.

Traditionally the candy is made from honey and rock sugar, although recipes based on corn syrup are now used in the United States.

It is common for street vendors of dragon's beard candy to carry out the folding process at their stall, which attracts customers fascinated by the process as much as by a desire to purchase the candy.


Dòuhuā or dòufǔhuā is a made with an extra soft form of tofu. It is also referred to as tofu pudding.


Northern Chinese cuisine

In , ''douhua'' is often eaten with soy sauce, thus resulting in a savory flavor. Northern Chinese often refer to ''douhua'' as ''doufunao'' . In Sichuan cuisine however, ''douhua'' is often eaten with chili and spicy condiments.

Taiwanese cuisine

In Taiwanese cuisine, douhua is served with sweet toppings like cooked peanuts, azuki beans, cooked oatmeal, tapioca, mung beans, and a syrup flavored with ginger or almond. During the summer, douhua is served with crushed ice; in the winter, it is served warm.

Hong Kong cuisine

In Hong Kong cuisine it is served with sweet ginger or clear syrup, and sometimes as a mixture with black sesame paste, and sometimes also with coconut milk. Traditionally it is made with wooden bucket, which is sold as ''dau fu fa in wooden bucket'' as part of dim sum cuisine.

Malaysian and Singaporean cuisine

In and it is more commonly known by its names ''tow huay'' or ''tau huay'' in Min Nan, or by the Cantonese name with the Cantonese variation being more common in Malaysia, in fact it is almost exclusively known as ''tau fa'' there while ''tau huey'' is generally associated with Singapore. In Penang, the common term is ''tau hua'' due to the Hokkien roots of the local Chinese dialect.

It is usually served either with a clear sweet syrup alone, with ginkgo seeds suspended in the syrup, or in a sugar syrup infused with . In Malaysia, however, the most popular kind is served in hot and sweet ginger water, with some customers preferring to buy only the ginger water as it is believed to contain medicinal properties. Again, the exception is in Penang where the sugar syrup is used, with white or brown sugar variations available. The same syrup is used to flavour drinks, known locally as ''tau chui'' in the Hokkien tongue, usually sold by the same purveyors, with the option to add grass jelly to the drink.

Japanese cuisine

In Japan, this style of ''douhua'' is known as ''annin dofu''.

Philippines cuisine

In the Philippines it is known as ''taho'' and sold by in the mornings. It is served warm with a dark brown syrup and sago or tapioca balls.

Indonesian cuisine

In the Indonesia it is known as ''Kembang Tahu'' and sold by in the evening. It is served warm with a dark brown syrup with ginger.


The dessert is also sold as a packaged cold dessert at Asian supermarkets.

''Douhua'' in popular culture

In the famous Singaporean Sitcom, Phua Chu Kang, one of the workers, King Kong is known to love ''douhua'' very much, and is often shown to be fat and lazy and always on "Tau-Huey Breaks" and looking forward to it. He is also shown to be always eating it during breaks and cheating another worker, Ah Goon, into paying for it.

Coconut bar

Coconut bar is a refrigerated dim sum dessert found in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Southern China and in overseas Chinatowns. It is sweet and has a soft, gelatin-like texture but is white in color rather than translucent like gelatin. It is sometimes referred to as coconut pudding despite not really being a pudding.


The dessert is made of coconut paste. It is sweetened, and sometimes sprinkled with desiccated coconuts. The texture is smooth, and the standard dim sum version has no filling.

Chao hong guo

Stir fried hawthorn is a traditional dish of Beijing cuisine.


The traditional culinary method of this dish begins with the preparation of the main ingredients: 5 kg of , 50 grams of ginger powder, and 1.5 kg of sugar. Hawthorns are first cleaned and with seeds removed and then cut into small pieces, and after water is boiled, the hawthorn pieces are dropped into the boiling water. Afterward, the boiled hawthorn pieces are stir fried with sugar and when the pieces becomes semi-transparent, they are taken out and cooled. Once cooled, the dish is ready to be served.

Another traditional dish of Beijing cuisine, the Hawthorn Yogurt , utilizes stir fried hawthorn as its main ingredient by adding it to Nai Lao.

Black sesame soup

Black sesame soup is a popular Chinese dessert that can be widely found throughout China and Hong Kong. It is generally served hot.

Cantonese cuisine

In Cantonese cuisine, it is a form of tong sui, or sweet soup. The main ingredient is crushed black sesame seeds in a flour form. It is boiled with hot water. Sometimes, granulated sugar are added, though the sesame seeds are usually sweet enough by default. It can now also be easily home-made using instant packets. The soup is perhaps the thickest of all tong sui.

Other Chinese cuisine

Other Chinese cuisine often add ''tangyuan'' into black sesame soup.

Black sesame roll

Black sesame roll is a refrigerated dim sum dessert found in Hong Kong and some overseas Chinatowns. It is sweet and the texture is smooth and soft.


The dessert begins with a thin layer of black sesame paste waiting to dry. The paste eventually forms a thin sheet, and is refrigerated. The sheets are then individually rolled up into a sesame roll.

Almond jelly

Almond jelly is a popular dessert in Hong Kong. The dessert is also popular in Taiwan, Singapore, and Japan and often found in dim sum restaurants worldwide. Almond jelly can be made using instant mix or from scratch. It can be eaten alone or with fruit.

Xi gua lao

Xi gua lao is a traditional dish of Beijing cuisine.

The traditional culinary method of this dish begins with the preparation of the main ingredients: 1.5 kg of watermelon, 50 grams of cherries, 25 grams of agar, 75 grams of sugar and vanilla powder. 750 grams of water is mixed with agar vanilla powder and sugar and boiled into syrup. The cherries are cut into small slices and the watermelon is crushed to get watermelon juice, and mixed with the syrup and then cooled by ice . The dish is often served during the summer.